Indian Society for technical education (ISTE)

The Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE) is the leading National Professional non-profit making Society for the Technical Education System in our country with the motto of Career Development of Teachers and Personality Development of Students and overall development of our Technical Education System. The event conducted under this student chapter is 

 

(i) One day workshop on educational utilizations of Indian standards  

The Department of Civil Engineering, Vardhaman College of Engineering conducted one day workshop on “Educational Utilizations of Indian Standards” on 26-9-2019. Students of B tech II civil engineering participated in it to enhance their knowledge apart from regular theoretical practice by Mr. Nishikanth Singh (Scientist B). The total event was conducted in association with ISTE and ICI Vardhaman Local Student chapter. Different sectors and activities were done by BIS which includes a each aspect of getting certified consumer goods such as cement, admixtures etc. 

Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) 

The Erstwhile Indian Standards Institution (now Bureau of Indian Standards) was established in the year 1947 with the objective of harmonious development of standardization activity in India. The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) was established under the BIS Act, 1986 for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. A new Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 which was notified on 22nd March 2016, has been brought into force with effect from 12 October 2017 that reinforces the activities of BIS in respect to standardization and certification of goods, articles, processes, systems and services. 

In the engineering courses, students do refer to various Indian standards pertaining to their subjects. Therefore as desired by the Government of India, BIS was conducting Educational Utilization programs periodically. Around 20,454 Indian Standards are published by the 15 technical departments of BIS. During our Educational Utilization program, some of the important standards are brought to the notice of the students of various branches for their own benefit in their future job in respective industries and also incase if they are interested in establishing their own industries 

The major objectives of the workshop were activities that were carried out in BIS  and educational utilization of Indian Standards. A total of 60 students from second year civil got benefited, Students got exposure on all the codes available for us to recommend a product/construction material, they discussed about the how quality checking is done. Also all available codes for load measurements, cement forms, concrete codes, steel codes, earthquake codes, etc. were specifically explained. 

 

(ii) Civil Model Expo  

Civil model expo under ISTE student chapter was organized on 11/08/2017 conducted by civil Engineering department at Vardhaman College of Engineering, kacharam, Shamshabad. The event was successful enough to attract 21 batches from civil engineering department. This event was organized with the objective to provide platform for the students to showcase their talent with a competitive spirit. 

The following are the committee members for this event: 

  1. Mr. Dashrath R & B department GHMC Hyderabad 
  1. Dr. Nageshwar rao , Professor, Department of ECE 

The model expo allows students to compete in technology activities. The participants were required to construct civil engineering models. It tested the participant’s creativity, precision and technical ability. Civil model expo named the theme for the model expo, several interesting models were displayed at all levels of civil engineering by UG students. 

All the models and activities were highly appreciated by the visitors as amply received in remarks left behind. The winners were encouraged with cash prizes. Department feels proud to organize such a successful event and would like to convey thanks to principal and management for their timely advice and cooperation for organizing successful event. 

WHAT THE STUDENTS HAVE LEARNT FROM THE CIVIL MODEL EXPO – 

Team work: 

Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results. Students learned what team work is. How a piece of work is distributed among team members, how the work becomes easy when each member works efficiently to complete the job given. It generated a mutual understanding between them. They come to know how different sets of ideas and different approaches can be used to complete the task. 

Planning: 

Students planned every aspect of their model beforehand. The day before the model expo turn was devoted to planning of what all had to be done in making a model. They used to chart out a rough algorithm before making a part on any machine. They properly planned out the complete model. 

Time management: 

The most useful aspect which made this model expo possible was dividing the work among team members. It reduced their time over any job. All team members reached lab at proper time, they learned punctuality, they learned how so ever big the task is we can do it by branching it between the team members and have that work done. 

Dealing with the last moment problems: 

Students learned how to work under critical conditions when there is a lot of stress on our mind without losing their temperament. It gave them an overall confidence of doing any sort of work in limited time. 

Dealing with real life situation: 

Students also learned how to give a shape to their ideas and how to implement what they have in their minds. 

The subject: 

Needless to mention, the project has helped students in getting a better grasp over the subject. Practicals are always useful, but when they do a project and devote themselves completely to it, they get a deeper knowledge and understanding. 

BATCH .NO YEAR STUDENT NAME MODEL NAME
1 II year Vivek Burj
2 II year Goutham Cable Stayed Bridge
3 II year Preethi Cantilever Retaining Wall
4 II year Ajay Dam (working)
5 II year Srikanth Swing Bridge
6 II year Rahul Rotating Bridge
7 II year Ashwin Rotary Intersection with traffic signs
8 II year Prakyath Beams
9 III Year K.M.K Mission Bhagiratha
10 III Year Rohith Reddy Super Structure without walls
11 III Year Sai Ram Under Ground Railway
12 III Year Ravi Teja Signal Less Road
13 III Year Akshath Submerged Tunnel
14 III Year Charan Prototype Hoover Dam
15 III Year Vijay Paper Bridge
16 III Year Vaishnavi Sinking hole
17 IV Year Rachana Retaining Earth Wall
18 IV Year Vinay Pile Foundation
19 IV Year Sreesha GABION WALL
20 IV Year Robert Reinforcement
21 IV Year Punitha Syphon Aqueduct

The necessary documentary evidence is enclosed:

About the models: 

  1. BURJ khalifa : 

 Burj Khalifa has redefined what is possible in the design and engineering of supertall buildings. By combining cutting-edge technologies and cultural influences, the building serves as a global icon that is both a model for future urban centres and speaks to the global movement towards compact, liveable urban areas. The Tower and its surrounding neighbourhood are more centralized than any other new development in Dubai. At the centre of a new downtown neighbourhood, Burj Khalifa’s mixed-use program focuses the area’s development density and provides direct connections to mass transit systems. Burj Khalifa’s architecture has embodied references to Islamic architecture and yet reflects the modern global community it is designed to serve. The building’s Y-shaped plan provides the maximum amount of perimeter for windows in living spaces without developing internal unusable area. As the tapering tower rises, setbacks occur at the ends of each “wing” in an upward spiralling pattern that decreases the mass of the tower as the height increases. These setbacks were modelled in the wind tunnel to minimize wind forces. The design of the Tower was significantly influenced by its performance with respect to the wind, in both its shaping and orientation. The building went through many wind tunnel tests and design iterations to develop optimum performance. The exterior cladding, comprised of aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels, was designed to withstand Dubai’s extreme temperatures during the summer months by using a low-E glass to provide enhanced thermal insulation. Vertical polished stainless steel fins were added to accentuate Burj Khalifa’s height and slenderness. The unprecedented height of the Burj Khalifa required it to be an innovative building in many ways. Design techniques, building systems, and construction practices all required rethinking, and in many cases new applications, to create a practical and efficient building. The structural system, termed a “buttressed core,” is designed to efficiently support a supertall building utilizing a strong central core, buttressed by its three wings. The vertical structure is tied together at the mechanical floors through outrigger walls in order to maximize the building’s stiffness. The result is an efficient system where all of the building’s vertical structure is used to support both gravity and lateral loads. The Tower incorporates numerous enhancements to the fire and life safety systems, including “lifeboat” operation for elevators which allows for them to be used for controlled evacuation under certain situations, decreasing total evacuation time by 45% over stairs alone. Due to its height, the building is able to utilize ventilation where cooler air temperatures, reduced air density, and reduced relative humidity at the top of the building allow for “sky-sourced” fresh air. When air is drawn in at the top of the building, it requires less energy for air conditioning, ventilation, and dehumidification. The building’s height also generates a substantial stack effect due to the thermal differences between the buildings’ interior and exterior, but Burj Khalifa was designed to passively control these forces, reducing the need for mechanical means of pressurization. Burj Khalifa has one of the largest condensate recovery systems in the world. Collecting water from air conditioning condensate discharge prevents it from entering the wastewater stream and reduces the need for municipal potable water. The tower’s management systems utilize smart lighting and mechanical controls which lower operational costs, allow for a more efficient use of building resources and services and better control of internal comfort conditions. Individual electric energy monitoring systems enable energy optimization of the tower’s systems over its lifetime. With over 185,800 sq m (2,000,000 sq ft) of interior space designed for Burj Khalifa, planning of the building’s interior space began at the earliest stages of its design focusing on three main goals—to recognize and acknowledge the building’s height, to integrate its structural and architectural rationale, and to appreciate the locale’s heritage, history and culture. The interiors of the uppermost floors were designed to reflect celestial influences. This is in contrast to the lower floors, which are inspired by natural elements. An art program for the Tower was developed in which over 500 individual pieces of art were placed and specified throughout the Tower. The premier featured art piece resides in the tower’s residential lobby. This sculpture, completed by the internationally renowned artist Jaume Plensa, is entitled “World Voices” and is composed of 196 cymbals supported by stainless steel rods rising from two pools similar to reeds in a lake. The cymbals represent the 196 countries of the world and reflect that the Burj Khalifa was a result of a collaboration of many people from around the world 

   2. CABLE STAYED BRIDGE 

At first glance, the cable-stayed bridge may look like just a variant of the suspension bridge, but don’t let their similar towers and hanging roadways fool you. Cable-stayed bridges differ from their suspension predecessors in that they don’t require anchorages, nor do they need two towers. Instead, the cables run from the roadway up to a single tower that alone bears the weight. 

The cable stayed bridge was developed after the Second World War It was not an entirely new concept, that is, where the cables from the deck are directly connected to the supporting columns or piers. This idea had been incorporated into some of the earlier suspension bridges, such as the Albert Bridge, London (1873) and the Brooklyn Bridge, New York (1883) to give the deck rigidity. Two German designers, Dischinger and F. Leonhardt, working independently, built the first cable stayed bridges at Stromsund, Sweden (1955) with a 183 metre span and Dusseldorf, Germany (1957) with a 260 metre span. ​This type of bridge is seen as aesthetically attractive, economic and easier to construct. The bridge can take many forms in the cables may be equal or unequal on both sides of the tower. The towers may be many shapes but a H, A or an inverted Y shape are the most popular. There may be one or two lines of cables and there is no need for the large anchorages as required in a suspension bridge. The cables may also radiate from the top of the tower, as a fan, or be arranged in a parallel manner along the vertical face of the tower, similar to a harp. 

The introduction of computer aided design, along with the development of new materials, has greatly assisted the design of cable stayed bridges. They now cover a wide range of spans from 100 to 1100 metres. This form of bridge type has proved to be very attractive for light pedestrian bridges with unusual loading configurations and is also suitable for heavily loaded highways. Concrete and steel are used either separately or as composites in the construction and it is possible to have multiple cable stayed bridges joined together e.g. Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela (1961) and Millau, France (2004). ​The length of spans was increasing on a gradual basis so that in 1991 the record was held by the Skarnsundet Bridge in Norway with a span of 530 metres. This was superseded by the Yangpu Bridge in Shanghai, China in 1993 with a span of 602 metres. Then the Pont de Normandie at Le Havre, France was constructed in 1994 with a span of 856 metres, an increase of 42%. ​This phenomenal increase in span for cable stayed bridges brought this type of bridge construction into competition with the large span suspension bridges and generated a whole new market for cable stayed bridges throughout the world, particularly where suspension bridge designs were under consideration. The current longest cable stayed bridge in the world is Russky Bridge, Vladivostok, Russia, with a span of 1104 metres and completed in 2012. 

3. CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL 

Cantilever walls are single-layered walls built in uniform thickness with its base connected to a slab. These walls are capable of holding significant amount of earth and can support tall slopes. The structure of the wall determines its strength and its capability to hold a significant amount of earth. However, the dimensions and the construction of the wall are quite complex. It is therefore a wise choice to hire the services of a landscaping company when constructing this kind of structure. 

Cantilever walls require steel reinforcement in both its base and its surface. The steel support needs to extend from the base throughout the wall to ensure that both parts coordinate together. Furthermore, the construction of the base is extremely important. It needs to be designed in a way that it could resist the earth’s outward pressure. Proper engineering and construction is required to ensure that the wall could best serve its purpose. 

Cantilever wall are usually of reinforced concrete and work on the principles of leverage. Have much thinner stem, and utilize the weight of the backfill soil to provide most of the resistance to sliding and overturning. Most common type of earth- retaining structure. The cantilever retaining wall (“cantilever wall”) constructed of reinforced Portland-cement concrete (PCC) was the predominant type of rigid retaining wall used from about the 1920s to the 1970s.  

Cantilevered retaining walls are made from an internal stem of steel-reinforced, cast-in-place concrete or mortared masonry (often in the shape of an inverted T). These walls cantilever loads (like a beam) to a large, structural footing, converting horizontal pressures from behind the wall to vertical pressures on the ground below. Sometimes cantilevered walls are buttressed on the front, or include a counterfort on the back, to improve their strength resisting high loads. Buttresses are short wing walls at right angles to the main trend of the wall. These walls require rigid concrete footings below seasonal frost depth. This type of wall uses much less material than a traditional gravity wall. Earth slopes and earth retaining structures are used to maintain two different ground surface elevations. To retain the soil at a slope that is greater than it would naturally assume, usually at a vertical or near vertical position. 

Reinforced cantilever walls have an economic height range of 1.200 to 6.000 m; walls in excess of this height have been economically constructed using prestressing techniques. Any durable facing material may be applied to the surface to improve the appearance of the wall but it must be remembered that such finishes are decorative and add nothing to the structural strength of the wall. Cantilever walls offer an unobstructed open excavation. Cantilever walls do not require installation of tiebacks below adjacent properties. Cantilever walls offer a simpler construction procedure as the construction staging is much simpler.  

4. DAM (WORKING) 

A typical dam is a wall of solid material built across a river to block the flow of the river thus storing water in the lake that will form upstream of the dam as water continues to flow from the river upstream of the dam. 

The main purpose of most dams is to create a permanent reservoir of water for use at a later time. The dam must be watertight (i.e. impermeable or impervious to water) so that water does not leak out of the dam and escape downstream. An essential part of a dam is therefore the “impermeable membrane”, i.e. the watertight part of the dam that prevents water leaking out. As we shall see later, it is not necessary that the entire dam wall be watertight. The natural earth or rock on which the dam is built (i.e. the dam foundation) must also be watertight as must the river valley in which the storage reservoir forms. If these natural areas (dam foundation and storage area) are not watertight then water could leak out of the reservoir even if the dam itself is watertight. 

As well as being watertight a dam must also be stable ie the dam wall must have sufficient strength to firstly, stand permanently under its own weight especially when at least part of the dam wall is saturated with water and secondly, resist the water pressure in the lake upstream of the dam. This water pressure exerts a force on the dam wall tending to push it downstream. The higher the dam, the greater the depth of water stored behind the dam and the greater the water pressure on the dam wall. The dam must also have sufficient strength to resist other forces to which it may be subjected from time to time e.g. shaking from earthquakes. The threat that earthquakes pose to dams varies widely depending on the region of the world in which the dam is located. 

A dam must have some way of releasing water in controlled amounts as it is needed ie an outlet valve of some type. Depending on the purpose of the dam the water may be released into a pipeline to supply a city with water, or into a hydro-electric power station to generate electricity or the water may simply be released into the river bed downstream of the dam and allowed to flow naturally down the river, eventually to be pumped out and used for irrigation of crops further downstream. The outlet valve must be connected via a pipe or tunnel to some type of intake structure where the water is actually drawn from the storage reservoir. 

When the river on which the dam has been built floods a very large volume of flood water will flow into the storage reservoir. Usually this is very, very much more water than can be released through the outlet valve. A dam must have some means whereby these large volumes of flood water can flow around the dam without causing damage to the dam itself; i.e. a spillway which, in most cases, is an open cut channel large enough to carry the flood water around the dam. If the dam is built of concrete the spillway may form part of the dam wall itself. However, if the dam is built of earth and/or rock fill (i.e. soil and broken rock) the spillway must be a separate structure because flood waters cannot be allowed to flow over the top of a fill (or embankment) dam which would be quickly washed away by the flood water if this was to happen. 

A large dam project may involve many types of construction apart from building the dam wall itself e.g., tunneling for diversion or outlet works; road building to replace roads flooded by the reservoir; quarrying to obtain rock fill and other construction materials; excavation of open cuts for the spillway, access roads and road deviations. 

5. SWING BRIDGE 

A swing bridge is a type of movable bridge, which is swung open by pivoting on a horizontal plane to allow tall boats and vessels to pass. The movable part of the bridge is known as the swing span, which has two arms extending from the pivot to each side of the navigation channel. When the bridge swings open, it moves horizontally and opens two separate channels on either side of the central pivot. While closed, a swing bridge allows motor traffic to pass across a body of water. When a boat needs to pass, motors located within the bridge rotate the swing span 90 degrees horizontally to the open position. 

Swing bridges have existed for at least 200 years, and the earliest examples were constructed of wood. One of the most well-known swing bridges was the Pennsylvania Main Line Canal Bridge, which was built in the early 19th century. However, these early bridges have been largely replaced, due to their insufficient width for two-lane motor traffic and their limited weight capacity. Most of the old swing bridges still being used today are railroad bridges, built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 

In its closed position, a swing bridge carrying a road or railway over a river or canal, for example, allows traffic to cross. When a water vessel needs to pass the bridge, road traffic is stopped (usually by traffic signals and barriers), and then motors rotate the bridge horizontally about its pivot point. The typical swing bridge will rotate approximately 90 degrees, or one-quarter turn; however, a bridge which intersects the navigation channel at an oblique angle may be built to rotate only 45 degrees, or one-eighth turn, in order to clear the channel. 

As this type requires no counterweights, the complete weight is significantly reduced as compared to other moveable bridges. Where sufficient channel is available to have individual traffic directions on each side, the likelihood of vessel-to-vessel collisions is reduced. The central support is often mounted upon a berm along the axis of the watercourse, intended to protect the bridge from watercraft collisions when it is opened. This artificial island forms an excellent construction area for building the movable span as the construction will not impede channel traffic. 

Although it is a good solution for many waterways, the swing bridge does have disadvantages. It has more moving parts than other moving bridges, and relies heavily upon motors and mechanical parts to move the swing span. If the bridge does not receive regular maintenance, or any of its parts malfunction, serious safety hazards may result. However, if well-maintained, a swing bridge will function safely for many years without incident. 

6. ROTATING BRIDGE 

The rotating bridge has an iron structure resting on solid foundation (first made of timber and later was replaced by concrete), with a system of gears connected to a motor that rotates the bridges, but for some time that operation has not been performed. The rotation allows the passage of vessels, and also the trains when that huge frame is perpendicular to the river with its two heads attached to the devices located in the land.  

In its closed position, a rotating bridge carrying a road or railway over a river or canal, for example, allows traffic to cross. When a water vessel needs to pass the bridge, rod traffic is stopped, and then motors rotate the bridge horizontally about its pivot point. The typical rotating bridge will rotate approximately 90 degrees, one quarter turn, or may be built to rotate only 45 degrees, in order to clear the channel. The chances of collisions is greatly reduced in the presence of a rotating bridge. The bridge requires no counterweights so its complete weight is significantly reduced. The design of the rotating bridge is very interesting and shows how creative the human mind can be. People continue to innovate and generate new ideas that amaze everyone. 

It’s relatively slow compared to other moving bridges when it comes to opening and closing times. Also, part of the machinery that operate the bridge are dipped under water that leads to a difficult task regarding maintenance. 

7. ROTARY INTERSECTION WITH TRAFFIC SIGNS 

Increasing trends of traffic in urban area is a major concern in all the cities in India. The heterogeneous traffic are more diverse in nature due to lane changing and lack of lane discipline characteristics of driver’s in India. Rotary intersections or round abouts are special form of at-grade intersections laid out for the movement of traffic in one direction around a central traffic island. Essentially all the major conflicts at an intersection namely the collision between through and right-turn movements are converted into milder conflicts namely merging and diverging. The vehicles entering the rotary are gently forced to move in a clockwise direction in orderly fashion. They then weave out of the rotary to the desired direction.  

The rotary intersections are of the most vital components of urban roadway network. Intersection is one when either three or more road meets or intersects each other. It has been observed that the entry capacity of vehicles become comparatively lower at intersection than that of the straight portion of the road due to reduction in speed. Hence, long queues on intersections often observed, causing huge fuel consumption as well as environmental pollution in the urban area beside considerable time loss. The situation become more intense during the peak hours when increase of traffic volume by 50% than normal traffic. The traffic flow characteristics at rotary intersections are studied to observe the performance of intersection. The capacity of the roadway rotary depends on the flow at different legs approaching the rotary.  

Rotary intersections or round abouts are special form of at-grade intersections laid out for the movement of traffic in one direction around a central traffic island. Essentially all the major conflicts at an intersection namely the collision between through and right-turn movements are converted into milder conflicts namely merging and diverging. The vehicles entering the rotary are gently forced to move in a clockwise direction in orderly fashion. They then weave out of the rotary to the desired direction. 

Traffic flow is regulated to only one direction of movement, thus eliminating severe conflicts between crossing movements. All the vehicles entering the rotary are gently forced to reduce the speed and continue to move at slower speed. Thus, none of the vehicles need to be stopped, unlike in a signalized intersection. Because of lower speed of negotiation and elimination of severe conflicts, accidents and their severity are much less in rotaries. Rotaries are self-governing and do not need practically any control by police or traffic signals. They are ideally suited for moderate traffic, especially with irregular geometry, or intersections with more than three or four approaches. 

8. BEAMS 

Beams have been used since dim antiquity to support loads over empty space, as roof beams supported by thick columns, or as bridges thrown across water, for example. The Egyptians invented the colonnaded building that was the inspiration for the classic Greek temple. Even with the scarcity of timber in Egypt, wooden beams supported the roofs. Early bridges were beams supported at each end by the stream banks, or on piles, on which a deck was constructed for traffic. In either case, the trunk of a tree was the usual beam, trimmed and either left round or squared. Our word “beam” is, in fact, cognate with German Baum or Dutch boom. A tree makes a very satisfactory beam, indeed, and practically all beams were originally timber beams. Stone beams, as in door lintels, could be used only for very short spans and light loads, because of the brittleness of stone. Brittle materials do not make good beams. 

A beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beam’s axis. Its mode of deflection is primarily by bending. The loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam’s support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses, strains and deflections of the beam. Beams are characterized by their manner of support, profile (shape of cross-section), length, and their material. 

One of the frequently used structural members is a beam whose main function is to transfer load principally by means of flexural or bending action. In a structural framework, it forms the main horizontal member spanning between adjacent columns or as a secondary member transmitting floor loading to the main beams. Normally only bending effects are predominant in a beam except in special cases such as crane girders, where effects of torsion in addition to bending have to be specifically considered. 

Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but any structures such as automotive automobile frames, aircraft components, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed to carry lateral loads are analyzed in a similar fashion. 

9. MISSION BHAGIRATHA 

The Chief Minister Sri K. Chandrashekar Rao (KCR) renamed the Telangana Drinking Water Grid Project as Mission Bhagiratha. The main agenda of the project is to provide best & healthy drinking water to rural & urban areas. In it, the top priority is to Munugode and Devarakonda Constituencies, which are fluoride affected. 

The water grid project aims at reaching out drinking water supply to even remotest place in the State. The Water Grid scheme is intended to provide safe drinking water to every household across the State in the coming four years. In Indian mythology, Bhagiratha was a great king who was credited with bringing the River Ganges to Earth from the Heaven. 

Even though two perennial rivers flow across the state, the tragedy is, most of Telangana state does not have access to clean drinking water. To change this situation, the Telangana government, under the able leadership of CM Sri K Chandrashekar Rao, has designed the Telangana Water Grid – a mammoth project intended to provide a sustainable and permanent solution to the drinking water woes. Since the government is embarking on a big task to bring drinking water from projects, rivers, and other water resources to every village and town in 10 districts, it is felt that “Mission Bhagiratha” is the apt name for this project. 

The aim of Telangana Water Grid is to provide 100 liters of clean drinking water per person in rural households and 150 liters per person in urban households. This project aims to provide water to about 25000 rural habitations and 67 urban habitations. 

The Telangana Water Grid would depend on water resources available in Krishna & Godavari – two perennial rivers flowing through the state. A total of 34 TMC of water from Godavari River and 21.5 TMC from Krishna River would be utilized for the water grid. Plans are ready to use water from Srisailam, Sriram Sagar Project, Komuram Bheem Project, Paleru Reservoir, Jurala Dam, and Nizam Sagar Project. This scientifically designed project intends to use the natural gradient wherever possible and pump water where necessary and supply water through pipelines. The state-level grid will comprise of a total of 26 internal grids. 

The main trunk pipelines of this project would run about 5000 KM, and the secondary pipelines are running a length of about 50000 KM would be used to fill service tanks in habitations. From here the village-level pipeline network of about 75,000 KM would be used to provide clean drinking water to households. 

The state government will be using the latest technology for the proposed Water Grid project. Advanced Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technology would be utilized for a detailed survey of the Water Grid. Lightweight aircraft will be engaged for aerial survey. IT and Panchayat Raj Minister KT Rama Rao informed the media that the Telangana state government would also use hydraulic modeling software for determining the size of water pipelines, pumping capacity and height to which water would be pumped. Along with this, software tools like surge analysis and smart flow would be used to resolve any problems that arise in the distribution of water. CM K Chandrashekar Rao would be personally monitoring the entire Water Grid project works from Secretariat through System Control and Data Access (SCDA) technology. 

The state government intends to adopt international standards in the execution of this project. To improve coordination and optimize resources, the government would follow a turn-key model where the organizations executing the plan would be responsible for its maintenance too. 

10. SUPERSTRUCTURE WITHOUT WALLS 

A superstructure model without walls is made by using the foundation, Plinth, Plinth beam, floors and roofs etc. The basic function of a foundation is to transmit the dead loads, live loads and other loads to the subsoil on which it rests in such a way that (a) settlements are within permissible limits, without causing cracks in the super-structure and (b) soil does not fail in shear. Since remains below the ground level, the signs of failure of foundations are not noticeable till it has already affected the building. It should therefore be designed very carefully. A foundation is necessary to evenly distribute the entire building load on the soil in such a manner that no damaging settlements take place. Hence, the foundations need to be constructed on good/solid ground. 

 A plinth is normally constructed just above the ground level and immediately after the foundation. It raises the floor above the ground level and herewith prevents surface water from entering the building. 

A plinth beam is constructed depending upon the type of the structure of the building and nature of the soil. It provides additional stability in regard to settlements of the building and earthquake damages. This is the surface on which we do most of our activities.  

Floors are the horizontal elements which divide the building into different levels for the purpose of creating more accommodation within a restricted space one above the other and provide support for the occupants, furniture and equipment of a building. The floor of a building immediately above the ground is known as ground floor. All other floors which are above the ground floor are known as the upper floors. The floors of the first storey is known as the first floor and that of the second storey is known as the second floor etc., etc. In case, part of the building is constructed below the ground level, or the building has the basement, the floor is known as basement floor.  

Floorings is laid over the filling of the plinth and on subsequent floors. Flooring can be done with different materials, but care must be given that the ground below the floor is well compacted. Flooring is done to prevent dampness from rising to the top and to have a firm platform that can be kept hygienic and clean. 

The roof provides protection for the building and the people living in it. The roof rests on the walls and requires proper anchoring so that wind and other mechanical impact cannot destroy it. A roof can have different shapes but it is always either flat or sloping. Roof is typically made of RCC, stone slab, tiles etc. 

11. UNDERGROUND RAILWAYS 

Underground railway system used to transport large numbers of passengers within urban and suburban areas. Subways are usually built under city streets for ease of construction, but they may take shortcuts and sometimes must pass under rivers. Outlying sections of the system usually emerge aboveground, becoming conventional railways or elevated transit lines. Subway trains are usually made up of a number of cars operated on the multiple-unit system. 

The first subway system was proposed for London by Charles Pearson, a city solicitor, as part of a city-improvement plan shortly after the opening of the Thames Tunnel in 1843. After 10 years of discussion, Parliament authorized the construction of 3.75 miles (6 km) of underground railway between Farringdon Street and Bishop’s Road, Paddington. Work on the Metropolitan Railway began in 1860 by cut-and-cover methods—that is, by making trenches along the streets, giving them brick sides, providing girders or a brick arch for the roof, and then restoring the roadway on top. On Jan. 10, 1863, the line was opened using steam locomotives that burned coke and, later, coal; despite sulfurous fumes, the line was a success from its opening, carrying 9,500,000 passengers in the first year of its existence. In 1866 the City of London and Southwark Subway Company (later the City and South London Railway) began work on their “tube” line, using a tunneling shield developed by J.H. Greathead. The tunnels were driven at a depth sufficient to avoid interference with building foundations or public-utility works, and there was no disruption of street traffic. The original plan called for cable operation, but electric traction was substituted before the line was opened. Operation began on this first electric underground railway in 1890 with a uniform fare of twopence for any journey on the 3-mile (5-kilometre) line. In 1900 Charles Tyson Yerkes, an American railway magnate, arrived in London, and he was subsequently responsible for the construction of more tube railways and for the electrification of the cut-and-cover lines. During World Wars I and II the tube stations performed the unplanned function of air-raid shelters. 

Many other cities followed London’s lead. In Budapest, a 2.5-mile (4-kilometre) electric subway was opened in 1896, using single cars with trolley poles; it was the first subway on the European continent. Considerable savings were achieved in its construction over earlier cut-and-cover methods by using a flat roof with steel beams instead of a brick arch, and therefore, a shallower trench. 

In Paris, the Metro was started in 1898, and the first 6.25 miles (10 km) were opened in 1900. The rapid progress was attributed to the wide streets overhead and the modification of the cut-and-cover method devised by the French engineer Fulgence Bienvenue. Vertical shafts were sunk at intervals along the route; and, from there, side trenches were dug and masonry foundations to support wooden shuttering were placed immediately under the road surfaces. Construction of the roof arch then proceeded with relatively little disturbance to street traffic. This method, while it is still used in Paris, has not been widely copied in subway construction elsewhere. 

12. SIGNAL LESS ROADS 

A freeway or corridor is a long stretch of road connecting various large and small streets intersecting it at various spots. They provide a nonstop, comfortable and an easy access to the road users without delays and with less vehicular fuel costs with the presence of grade separated junctions including flyovers and underpasses. 

Freeways and corridors are free of regulatory signals or stop signs hereby allowing the vehicles to adopt higher traveling speeds. That is why the corridors are also most commonly known as Signal Free Corridors. Corridors aim at managing traffic, minimizing disruptions and reducing inconveniences experienced by motorists and other road users while traveling. 

The interconnection of freeways or corridors by other roads is typically achieved with grade separated facilities in the form of either underpasses or overpasses. Freeways / Signal Free Corridors usually have footpaths attached with it to provide a safe place to walk for the pedestrians. Other than that specialized pedestrian footbridges or tunnels are also provided at various spots along the corridors after careful and detailed study of the pedestrian movement involved at the spots. 

These facilities enable pedestrians to cross the freeway at that point without coming on the main roads and risking their lives as the vehicles are moving relatively faster along the signal free corridors. However, these facilities are rendered useless and a waste of the funded money when the pedestrians prefer to cross the busy corridors at grade risking their lives and also the lives of the motorists. Not each hale and healthy citizen is willing to climb the tiring steps of the pedestrian bridges and cross the street safely. This scenario is quite evident in Karachi where the citizens lacking basic civic sense risks their lives and jump off the heavy new jersey barriers installed along the medians of the corridors in order to prohibit road crossing across the streets. 

Though not a permanent solution to the city’s ever-growing population and traffic problems, the signal free corridors have eased the traffic problems temporarily for at least ten years. Although the sophisticated and well-designed signal free corridors allow for easy, smooth and uninterrupted transitions between busy arterial roads they do have a few drawbacks and shortcomings that need to be looked into. The road safety situation which has now worsen greatly after the construction of these signal free corridors should be considered and proper safety provisions should be devised to overcome this hazard. The following are the advantages of freeways it Improve the availability, connectivity and ease of access to all road users. Improve the economic development of a city. It Improve and support quality of citizen’s life. It Improve the environmental conditions with less congestion possibilities which results in higher fuel emissions increasing pollution lesser time costs. Lesser possibilities of delays, congestion, bottlenecks and road jams. Meet the future traffic requirements up to a certain level for a certain time period. Large number of traffic guide signs as the higher speeds reduce decision times. 

13. SUBMERGED TUNNEL 

Tunnels in water are by no means new in civil engineering. Since about 1900, more than 100 immersed tunnels have been constructed. Bridges are the most common structures used for crossing water bodies. In some cases immersed tunnels also used which run beneath the sea or river bed. But when the bed is too rocky, too deep or too undulating submerged floating tunnels are used. 

The Submerged Floating Tunnel (SFT) concept was first conceived at the beginning of the century, but no actual project was undertaken until recently. As the needs of society for regional growth and the protection of the environment have assumed increased importance, in this wider context the submerged floating tunnel offers new opportunities. The submerged floating tunnel is an innovative concept for crossing waterways, utilizing the law of buoyancy to support the structure at a moderate and convenient depth .The Submerged floating Tunnel is a tube like structure made of Steel and Concrete utilizing the law of buoyancy .It supported on columns or held in place by tethers attached to the sea floor or by pontoons floating on the surface. The Submerged floating tunnel utilizes lakes and waterways to carry traffic under water and on to the other side, where it can be conveniently linked to the rural network or to the underground infrastructure of modern cities. 

Floating tunnel is the totally new concept and never used before even for very small length. It can be observed that the depth of bed varies from place to place on a great extent. The maximum depth is up to 8 km. also at certain sections. The average depth is 3.3 km. The two alternatives are available for constructions are bridge above water level or tunnel below ground level. Since the depth is up to 8 km it is impossible to construct concrete columns of such height for a bridge. And also the pressure below 8km from sea surface is nearly about 500 times than atmospheric pressure so one cannot survive in such a high pressure zone. So the immersed tunnels also cannot be used. Therefore, floating tunnel is finalized which is at a depth 30m from the sea level, where there is no problem of high pressure. This is sufficient for any big ship to pass over it without any obstruction. 

SFT is a buoyant structure which moves in water. The relation between buoyancy and self-weight is very important, since it controls the static behavior of the tunnel and to some extent, also the response to dynamic forces. Minimum internal dimension often result in a near optimum design. There are two ways in which SFT can be floated. That is positive and negative buoyancy. Positive buoyancy: In this the SFT is fixed in position by anchoring either by means of tension legs to the bottom or by means of pontoons on the surface. Here SFT is mainly 30 meters below the water surface. Negative buoyancy: Here the foundations would be piers or columns to the sea or lake. This method is limited to 100 meters water depth. SFT is subjected to all environmental actions typical in the water environment: wave, current, vibration of water level, earthquake, corrosion, ice and marine growth. It should be designed to with stand all actions, operational and accidental loads, with enough strength and stiffness. Transverse stiffness is provided by bottom anchoring. 

14. PROTOTYPE HOOVER DAM 

The Hoover Dam, built over sixty years ago, still stands today as one of the world’s most outstanding engineering achievements. It has successfully tamed the wild Colorado River by spanning from the Nevada wall to the Arizona wall. As soon as approval was given to begin work on the Boulder Canyon project, people across America knew that completion of the Hoover Dam would be a milestone in construction history. The Hoover Dam has greatly influenced the construction industry today. Innovative ideas were required for construction at the Boulder Canyon project; from a small city being built for workers, to the way multiple contractors managed the project. Construction of the Hoover Dam set new standards for the building world in numerous ways, so it is no wonder why it is still considered an amazing achievement.  

             Construction of the Hoover Dam was the first step in controlling the powerful Colorado River. Before the Hoover Dam, the river would flood every spring and dry up in the fall (Doherty, 1995). The only way to maintain the river’s level would be to build a dam greater than any built prior in history, so in 1930, that is what congress and senate planned to do. At the time of the dam’s completion in 1935, Hoover Dam was the largest dam in the world at an impressive height of 726.4 feet. It is 660 feet thick at its base and 45 feet thick at its top. The top of the concrete, thick-arch dam spans a length of 1,244 feet and the whole dam weighs approximately 6.6 million tons. Building the actual dam took four and a half years and during that time, 112 people were killed during investigation and construction phases. 

             In 1930, after many years of petitioning by the congress and the senate, the Secretary of the Interior announced a dam to be built in Black Canyon. After approval was given to build the dam, the serious problem as to who was going to actually construct the dam had to be solved. 

The contract to build the Boulder Dam was awarded to Six Companies Inc. on March 11, 1931, a joint venture of Morrison-Knudsen Company; Utah Construction Company; Pacific Bridge Company; Henry J. Kaiser & W. A. Bechtel Company; MacDonald & Kahn Ltd. of; and the J.F. Shea Company of Portland, Oregon. The chief executive of Six Companies Inc, Frank Crowe, had previously invented many of the techniques used to build the dam. During the concrete-pouring and curing portion of construction, it was necessary to pour in sections and circulate refrigerated water through tubes in the concrete. This was to remove the heat generated by the chemical reactions that solidify the concrete. The setting and curing of the concrete was calculated to take about 125 years if poured at once and no additional cooling was done. Six Companies, Inc., did much of this work, but it discovered that such a large refrigeration project was beyond its expertise. Hence, the Union Carbide Corporation was contracted to assist with the refrigeration needs. 

15. PAPER BRIDGE 

Bridges are an amazing feat of engineering. Although some of the most basic bridges are made of only a couple of logs and span only a few feet across a creek, the Danyang-Kushan Grand Bridge in China stretches 102 miles! All bridges have some basic characteristics in common. First, there are two main forces that act on bridges: compression and tension. Compression is the force that pushes the bridge down in the middle. Tension is a force acting in the opposite direction, and it wants to pull the bridge to either side on which it is anchored. 

The structure of bridges balances these forces so that the bridge does not collapse from too much compression or tear apart from too much tension. Suspension bridges use cables, truss bridges use triangles, and although simple, beam bridges are only enforced by pillars underneath them. Arch bridges are one of the oldest types of bridges and use blocks arranged in a circular shape to distribute force. Here are many variations of this project, but today, we’ll challenge you to use only 4 pieces of paper and 6” of tape per trial. You can change this by using more or less paper and tape to challenge yourself. In this project, you’ll be building three bridges total and comparing how much weight they can hold. Before you start, think about some successful bridges. What did they look like? How were they constructed to balance tension and compression? 

16. SINKING HOLE 

A sinkhole is essentially any hole in the ground created by erosion and the drainage of water. They can be just a few feet across or large enough to swallow whole buildings. Although they’re often the result of natural processes they can also be triggered by human activity. 

There are two basic types, those that are created slowly over time (a cover-subsidence sinkhole) and those that appear suddenly (a cover-collapse sinkhole). Naturally, it’s the latter type that create headlines, but both varieties are formed by the same basic mechanism. Sinkholes mainly occur in what is known as ‘karst terrain’; areas of land where soluble bedrock (such as limestone or gypsum) can be dissolved by water. With cover-subsidence sinkholes the bedrock becomes exposed and is gradually worn down over time, with the holes often becoming ponds as the water fills them in. 

With a cover-collapse sinkhole this same process occurs out of sight. Naturally occurring cracks and small voids underneath the surface are hollowed out by water erosion, with a cover of soil or sediment remaining over the top. Eventually, as the hole expands this cover can no longer support its own weight and suddenly collapses to reveal the cavern underneath. Most of the sinkholes we are seeing at the moment are at least indirectly created by human activity. They’re occurring just to the sides of human constructions where rain water has been concentrated on a particular patch of ground in the form of run-off from roofs and tarmac. 

However, these local factors wouldn’t matter if it wasn’t for the wider picture. The South East (where most of the sinkholes have appeared) has not only suffered one of the wettest winters in recent decades, but is also natural sinkhole country – most of the bedrock is the soluble chalk. 

Despite the dramatic nature of cover-collapse sinkholes they’re not as dangerous as they look. Their effects are localized and once they’ve appeared they can be safely dealt with. However, this isn’t to say that sinkholes are safe by any means. In 2010 one of the most devastating sinkholes in recent times hit Guatemala City. An area approximately 65ft wide and 100ft deep collapsed, swallowing a three-storey factory and killing 15 people. In Florida last year a sinkhole also proved deadly after it opened up within a detached bungalow and swallowed the sleeping body of 37-year-old Jeffrey Bush. Bush’s body was never recovered from the 30ft wide, 20ft deep hole. But even the example above is small compared with sinkholes from the rest of the world. The deepest we know about is the Xiaozhai tiankeng in China. Tiankeng is the local term for large sinkholes and translates literally as ‘heavenly pit’. This particular example in the Chongqing district is a staggering 662m deep and 626m wide. 

Other notable sinkholes include Sima Humboldt in Bolivia, a crater 314m deep and formed from extremely resistant sandstone; the Great Blue Hole, a perfectly round hole in the middle of an atoll which is 124m deep; and Crveno Jezero in Croatia, a 530m deep sinkhole with nearly vertical walls. 

17. RETAINING EARTHWALL 

Reinforced Earth is a composite material formed by cohesion less soil and flexible metal reinforcing strips. The earth and the reinforcement are combined through friction. The result is a monolithic mass that acts cohesively, supporting its own weight and applied loads.  

The visible part of the structure is structurally the least significant. The facing skin can be in precast concrete (with anyone of a number of architectural finishes), semi-elliptical steel sections, treated timber or even wire mesh.  

Construction of a Reinforced Earth wall is straightforward and simple. Merely place a layer of facing panels, bolt on the reinforcing strips then backfill and compact. Repeat this cycle until the appropriate wall height has been reached. Properly compacted to a uniformly high density, the earth combines with the reinforcement to produce a strong, durable structure with predictable performance characteristics. 

The reinforcement improves the earth by increasing the bearing capacity of the soil and reduces the settlement. It also reduce the liquefaction behavior of the soil. The construction of reinforced earth structure has become wide spread in Geotechnical engineering practice in the last two decades owing to their ease of construction and economy compared to those of conventional methods. Reinforcement of soil, is practiced to improve the mechanical properties of the soil being reinforced by the inclusion of structural element such as granular piles, lime/cement mixed soil, metallic bars or strips, synthetic sheet, grids, cells etc. 

The concept of combining two materials of different strengths characteristics to form a composite material of greater strength is quite familiar in civil engineering practices and is in use for ages. The reinforced concrete constructions are examples for such composite materials. It combines the high tensile strength of steel with the high compressive, but relatively low tensile strength of concrete. Likewise, soils which have little if any tensile strength can also be strengthened by the inclusion of materials with high tensile strength. This mobilization of tensile strength is obtained by surface interaction between the soil and the reinforcement through friction and adhesion. The reinforced soil is obtained by placing extensible or inextensible materials such as metallic strips or polymeric reinforcement within the soil to obtain the requisite properties. 

The Primary purpose of reinforcing a soil mass is to improve its stability, increasing its bearing capacity and reduce Settlements and Lateral deformations. 

Reinforcing materials: stainless steel, aluminum, and fiber glass to nylon, polyester, polyamides, and other synthetics in the form of strips. 

18. PILE FOUNDATIONS 

Pile foundations are deep foundations used when the site has a weak shallow bearing strata making it necessary to transfer load to a deeper strata either by friction or end bearing principles. Foundations provide support for structures by transferring the load to the rock or layers of soil that have sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics. There are a very wide range of foundations types available which are suitable for different applications. Foundations are classified mainly as Shallow foundations and Deep foundations. 

Pile foundations are deep foundations which are formed by long slender columnar elements. They consist of two components: Pile cap and single or group of piles.  Pile foundations are principally used to transfer the loads from super structure, through weak compressible strata or water on to stronger, more compact, less compressible and stiffer soil or rock. This type of foundation is used for large structures and also in situations where the soil is not suitable to prevent excessive settlement. 

There are many reasons that a geotechnical engineer would recommend a deep foundation over a shallow foundation, such as for a skyscraper. Some of the common reasons are very large design loads, a poor soil at shallow depth, or site constraints like property lines. There are different terms used to describe different types of deep foundations including the pile (which is analogous to a pole), the pier (which is analogous to a column), drilled shafts, and caissons. Piles are generally driven into the ground in situ; other deep foundations are typically put in place using excavation and drilling. The naming conventions may vary between engineering disciplines and firms. Deep foundations can be made out of timber, steel, reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete. 

Foundations relying on driven piles often have groups of piles connected by a pile cap (a large concrete block into which the heads of the piles are embedded) to distribute loads which are larger than one pile can bear. Pile caps and isolated piles are typically connected with grade beams to tie the foundation elements together; lighter structural elements bear on the grade beams, while heavier elements bear directly on the pile cap. 

Pile foundation is required when the soil bearing capacity is not sufficient for the structure to withstand. This is due to the soil condition or the order of bottom layers, type of loads on foundations, conditions at site and operational conditions. Many factors prevent the selection of surface foundation as a suitable foundation such as the nature of soil and intensity of loads, we use the piles when the soil have low bearing capacity or in building in water like bridges and dams. A pile foundation consists of two components: Pile cap and single or group of piles. Piles transfers the loads from structures to the hard strata, rocks or soil with high bearing capacity. These are long and slender members whose length can be more than 15m. 

19. GABION WALL 

A gabion is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping. For erosion control, caged riprap is used. For dams or in foundation construction, cylindrical metal structures are used. In a military context, earth- or sand-filled gabions are used to protect sappers, infantry, and artillerymen from enemy fire.  

The most common civil engineering use of gabions was refined and patented by Gaetano Maccaferri in the late 1800’s in Sacerno, Emilia Romagna and used to stabilize shorelines, stream banks or slopes against erosion. Other uses include retaining walls, noise barriers, temporary flood walls, silt filtration from runoff, for small or temporary/permanent dams, river training, or channel lining. They may be used to direct the force of a flow of flood water around a vulnerable structure. 

Gabions are also used as fish screens on small streams. Gabion stepped weirs are commonly used for river training and flood control; the stepped design enhances the rate of energy dissipation in the channel, and it is particularly well suited to the construction of gabion stepped weirs. A gabion wall is a retaining wall made of stacked stone-filled gabions tied together with wire. Gabion walls are usually battered, or stepped back with the slope, rather than stacked vertically. 

Gabion baskets have some advantages over loose riprap because of their modularity and ability to be stacked in various shapes. Gabions have advantages over more rigid structures, because they can conform to subsidence, dissipate energy from flowing water and resist being washed away, and they drain freely. Their strength and effectiveness may increase with time in some cases, as silt and vegetation fill the interstitial voids and reinforce the structure. They are sometimes used to prevent falling stones from a cut or cliff endangering traffic on a thoroughfare. 

The life expectancy of gabions depends on the lifespan of the wire, not on the contents of the basket. The structure will fail when the wire fails. Galvanized steel wire is most common, but PVC-coated and stainless steel wire are also used. PVC-coated galvanized gabions have been estimated to survive for 60 years. Some gabion manufacturers guarantee a structural consistency of 50 years. 

In the United States, gabion use within streams first began with projects completed from 1957 to 1965 on North River, Virginia and Zealand River, New Hampshire. More than 150 grade-control structures, bank revetments and channel deflectors were constructed on the two U.S. Forest Service sites. Eventually, a large portion of the in-stream structures failed due to undermining and lack of structural integrity of the baskets. In particular, corrosion and abrasion of wires by bedload movement compromised the structures, which then sagged and collapsed into the channels. Other gabions were toppled into channels as trees grew and enlarged on top of gabion revetments, leveraging them toward the river channels. 

20. REINFORCEMENT 

Reinforced concrete (RC) is a composite material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used modern building materials. Concrete is an “artificial stone” obtained by mixing cement, sand, and aggregates with water. Fresh concrete can be moulded into almost any shape, giving it an inherent advantage over other materials. Steel reinforcement is available in the form of plain steel bars, deformed steel bars, cold-drawn wire, welded wire fabric, and deformed welded wire fabric. In Sri Lanka Reinforcing steel must conform to applicable British/ European standard specifications. 

Concrete can withstand compressive forces but week in tension. Reinforcement has good tension bearing capacity. So we use reinforcement to enhance moment carrying capacity of the concrete. Two type of reinforcement are commonly use to concrete which are 450N/mm^2 strength Tor steel (high yield steel) and 260N/mm^2 Mild steel. Tor steel was used as reinforcement material. In our site, Y-25, Y-20, Y-16, Y-12, Y-10 and Y-8 bars were used for strip foundation, columns, beams and slab, and 6mm diameter Mild steel coil cable was used to make stirrups plinth beam. Reinforcement should be free from oil, grease and rust because they reduce the bond strength between concrete and reinforcement      

Minimum cover should be provided for the reinforcement to protect from corrosion due to contact with moisture and air and also to give fire resistance. So concrete cover is depend on exposure condition and required fire resistance. 

If only cement concrete is used that will be good enough to withstand the compression but as it cannot take tension, failure will be initiated in the bottom face. Eventually, the total failure of the member will occur. To reduce this problem, steel bar is inserted on the tension zone of the member as steel has got very high tensile strength. Now the member can now resist compression and tension in combination of steel and concrete as the compression will be taken by concrete on the upper face and tension will be taken by steel on the lower face. Whole system will behave as one in resisting loads of the structure and the concept of reinforced concrete arises. So the reinforced concrete or reinforcement concrete is defined as the combination of steel and concrete which can take both tension and compression arises in a member as one. 

21. SYPHON AQUDUCT 

A cross drainage work is structure. Which is constructed at the crossing of a canal and a natural drain, so as dispose of drainage water without interrupting the continuous canal supplies. In whatever way the canal is aligned, such cross drainage works generally become unavoidable. In order to reduce the cross drainage works, the artificial canals are generally aligned along the ridge line called water-shed. When once the canal reaches the watershed line, cross drainage works are generally not required, unless the canal alignment is deviated from the watershed line. 

Syphon is the structure in which case the canal water passed through inverted syphon under a drainage. The canal water is allowed to flow under pressure when tail water level below a syphon is higher than the under surface of the culvert and uplift pressure is exerted on the covering of the roof. To ensure the safety the work under worst conditions, it should be assumed that there is no water in the canal at that time. The uplift pressure at the downstream end of the barrel roof is equal to the difference between downstream water level and level of the underside of the roof. At any other point along the barrel, the uplift pressure is given by the ordinate between the hydraulic gradient line and the underside of the roof covering. 

In a syphon aqueduct, canal water is carrier above the drainage but the high flood level (HFL) of drainage is above the canal trough. The drainage water flows under syphonic action and there is no presence of atmospheric pressure in the natural drain. 

The construction of the syphon aqueduct structure is such that, the flooring of drain is depressed downwards by constructing a vertical drop weir to discharge high flow drain water through the depressed concrete floor. Syphonic aqueducts are more often constructed and better preferred than simple Aqueduct, though costlier.